For over 20 years, nation-states and non-state actors have used cyberspace to subvert American power, America security, and the American way of life. Despite numerous criminal indictments, economic sanctions, and the development of robust cyber and non-cyber military capabilities, the attacks against the United States have continued. The perpetrators saw that their onslaught damaged the United States without triggering a significant retaliation. Chinese cyber operators stole hundreds of billions of dollars in intellectual property to accelerate China’s military and economic rise and undermine U.S. military dominance. Russian operators and their proxies damaged public trust in the integrity of American elections and democratic institutions. China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea all probed U.S. critical infrastructure with impunity. Criminals leveraged globally connected networks to steal assets from individuals, companies, and governments. American restraint was met with unchecked predation.